Air traffic management (ATM) is a system (e.g., NextGen and SESAR) and, as such, inherits a life cycle related to benefits, costs, effectiveness, and other considerations. Present your view as to whether present ATM systems are either in catch-up mode or are securely embarked into futuristic modes for safer and more efficient commercial airline operations. Further, indicate the implications associated with your view about how life cycle components likely will be affected. Explain your rationale and provide at least one scholarly source to support your position. Post your observation (using APA format where applicable)
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Objective: This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Background: Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. Method: We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. Results: A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. Conclusion: It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. Application: The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.